Carmarthenshire in the south-west of Wales is known as the "Garden of Wales". The southeastern part was once heavily industrialised with coal mining, steel-making and tin-plating. In the north the woollen industry was very important in the 18th century. Today the economy depends on agriculture, forestry, fishing and tourism, the county offers a wide range of outdoor activities.

The Black Mountain range dominates the east, the lower foothills of the Cambrian Mountains the north. A part of the county belongs to the South Wales Coalfield.