The North Western Province is rich in several types of mineral deposits. Miocene limestones in the north western coastal belt near Puttalam are used for cement manufacturing. Graphite and Mica are mined underground. Beach mineral sands, especially the best known silica sand deposits and ilmenite are mined open cast.
The cultural heritage are the remains of four medieval kingdoms of Sri Lanka between the mid 12th and mid 14th centuries. The Sri Lankan kings built the citadels Panduwasnuwara, Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa and Kurunegala. Much older are the ancient Buddhist rock temples, mostly with roots in the 1st century BC.