The Transylvanian Plateau is located in central Romania, almost entirely surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. Vast forests cover parts of the Transylvanian Plateau and the mountains. The flatlands have the country's best farmland and several historic cities and towns.
The Transylvanian Plateau lies 300 to 500 m asl, and is drained mainly by the Mureş, Someş, Criş, and Olt rivers. All are tributaries of the Danube. It is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt, and sulfur.