An important part of caving is the surveying of the explored cave, which results in a map. All the collected data is stored in a cave cadastre. This data is then the basis of scientific work or probably for an expert report in practical civil engineering. Cavers use the maps for orienting themselves in huge cave systems.
Cae surveying works more or less like land surveying on the surface. But the tools and instruments differ. They must be adapted to the cold and humid conditions in a cave. Even modern technology like laser and electronics is used. But the equipment has to be reinforced against the humidty, generally custom made by the cavers.
Surveying is actually simple. Mark a point at the entrance and determine its location with gps. Then go through the cave from point to point and note the location of each point measured from the last one. This data is coputed in a special software, which also draws the map. While measuring a scetch is drawn, to note all the cave content and specialties of the cave. This information is later copied into the mapdrawn by the software.
Surveying is the difference between cave trekking and caving. A cave explorer has completed an important task after his visit, has done scientific work.