A solution cave is formed by dissolving the rock, Solid matter dissolves in liquids under certain conditions. A particularly good solvent is water. At the same time, it is also the only one that occurs in nature in sufficient quantity. However, other substances can be involved in the solution, especially various types of acids.
Ice does not need to be dissolved, it becomes liquid by melting, but this process also relies on the water to bring the energy. Rocks such as salt or gypsum are directly soluble in water, and in very large quantities, salt and gypsum karst develops very quickly. Limestone in not soluble in water, however, is dissolved by carbonic acid created by carbon dioxide in meteoric water. Limestone dissolution by sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid is also very important. Sulphur compounds can form these acids both chemically and biogenically. Sandstone and especially quartzite, a sandstone consisting exclusively of quartz, are not soluble under normal conditions. But high temperatures and large amounts of water or alternatively a very long time, in combination with acids in the water, also dissolve these rocks.