The Limousin is a rural region, famous for beef farming, the Limousin cattle are of a distinctive chestnut red. The uplands are mostly more than 350 m asl, with the highest peaks around 1,000 m asl. Those highlands are cut throgh by numerous important rivers like Dordogne, Vienne, Creuse and Cher. The water quality and the fishing possibilities are well-known.

The Limousin is one of four regions which cover the massif central. The rocks are of volcanic origin, there are granite intrusions and metamorphic rocks. The highest peaks are ancient volcanoes. But most of the lower highlands are sedimentary rocks, primarily limestone. The limestone is karstified and has numerous karst features and caves. There is only a single show cave, as the caves of this area are not as extraordinary as the caves of other French regions. But there are some extraordinary archaeological places.