1 Baotuquan S Rd, Lixia District, Jinan, Shandong, China 250012.
10-APR to 09-OCT daily 7-19.
10-OCT to 09-APR daily 7-18.
Adults CNY 40, Children (<1.2 m) free.
L=30 m, W=18 m, Ymax=240,000 m³/d, Ymin=0 m³/d.
Total discharge of all springs: 300,000-350,000 m³/d.
|Guided tours:||self guided|
P. Fang, Y. Cao, K. Tang, X. Li, S. Wang (1988):
Age Dating of the Groundwater in the Spring Area of Jinan City
in: Karst Hydrogeology and Karst Environment Protection. Volume 2. Proceedings of the 21st Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, Guilin, China October 10-15, 1988. IAHS Publication No. 176, (1988). p 597-605.
|Address:||Baotu Spring, 1 Baotuquan S Rd, Lixia District, Jinan, Shandong, China 250012, Tel: +86-531-8692-0439.|
|As far as we know this information was accurate when it was published (see years in brackets), but may have changed since then.
Please check rates and details directly with the companies in question if you need more recent info.
|1956||Baotu Spring Park established.|
趵突泉 (Baotu Spring) is the biggest of 72 karst springs in Jinan city, and is commonly known as "Number One Spring under the Heaven". Jinan is known as the "City of Springs". The water originates from a karst aquifer in Ordovician limestone below the city. The karst is covered by marl and so there are only some holes in the water-resistant cover were the water wells up under pressure. The upwelling of the water can easily be seen on the surface of the spring, it forms three protrusions. This kind of springs is called artesian spring, the name Bàotū Quán is often translated Jet Spring or Spurting Spring.
The water is very clear and has a high amount of dissolved limestone, the result is the typical blue colour of the spring. The spring was transformed into a rectangular spring pool, 30 m long and 18 m wide. It is located in a huge park with numerous wooden temples, in the middle of the city center. The water flows through a canal north into 大明湖 (Da Ming Lake).
The aquifer originates from the mountainous area to the south of the city. The recharge area has a size of 1,500 km², 550 km² provide direct recharge and 950 km² indirect recharge. But during the last 50 years the groundwater was used as drinking water and so discharge is reduced. The highest amount of water consumption was in the 1970s when the springs actually stopped flowing during dry periods. Today all springs in the city have a discharge of 300,000-350,000 m³/d, Baotu Spring alone about 240,000 m³/d.
The springs have a long history, they are first mentioned some 3,500 years ago during the Shang Dynasty, in the Spring and Autumn Annals, the official chronicle of the ancient Lu state. This book is one of the Five Classics of Chinese literature. Geographer Li Daoyuan described them in his book Shuijing Zhu (Commentary on the Waterways Classic) during the Northern Wei dynasty. At this time Baotu Spring and adjacent springs formed the source of the ancient Luo River. The river has been transformed into the canals and lakes of today. The name of the spring changed several times, the current name dates back to the Song dynasty. Previous names were Baoliu and Lanquan. During the millennia the spring was a recurring subject of classic Chinese literature.