The canton of Bern is the second largest of all Swiss cantons.
The canton of Bern is German speaking.
It is mainly drained by the River Aare and its tributaries.
Geographically it is divided into three areas.
The Berner Oberland (Bernese Oberland) lies in the south of the canton and is part of the Alps.
The highest elevation is the Finsteraarhorn with 4274 m asl.
Most famous sights are Interlaken and the Jungfrau (4158 m asl), Aareschlucht, Grindelwald, Mürren and Kandersteg.
Despite its greatness, it is not a good region for caves or mines.
The central core of the Alps is composed of crystalline rocks, so there is no karstification.
There are also no important mines, but collecting and selling minerals and sem precious gemstones (strahlen) is common.
There are several sights below connected with minerals.
The rest are gorges, a result of 2.4 million years of Ice Ages and changing glaciation.
The Berner Mittelland (Bernese Midlands) is more or less the valley of the rivers Aare.
It includes the river Emme, some foothills of the Bernese Alps, and the plain around the Capital Bern.
The Seenland (Lake Region) is located in the north of the canton around Lake Biel.
The area is renowned for its wine production.