The Lesser Poland Voivodeship is located in southern Poland, bordered to the south by Slovakia, the capital is Kraków. The whole region is hill country and mountain ranges with great geologic diversity and numerous deposits, especially ores and coal. It is bordered by mountains, Góry Świętokrzyskie (Świętokrzyskie Mountains) to the north, Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska to the west, the Tatra, Pieniny and Beskidy Mountains to the south.

The Ojcowski National Park is situated in the Jura Krakowsko-Czestochowska. The Krakow-Wielunska Jurassic Plateau is a karst area with about 150 registered and mapped caves. Three of them are considered tourist caves, Wierzchowska Cave, Ciemna Cave, and King Lokietek Cave. However, this geologic unit spans two voivodeships, and there are more caves in RegionŚląskie (Silesia).

The second important karst area is the Polish part of the Tatra mountains. There are six caves which are open to the public, but only one is a show cave. The Polish Tatras belong completely to the Małopolskie Voivodeship.